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Temporal Entities: patterns

Introduction

The document outlines modelling choices in relation to temporal entities such as activities and statements which specify agency, causality, and other properties that, within CRM, can be related to temporal entities. The modelling are provide as CRM patterns as well as in their encoded form using a real-world statements from one of our case studies. The syntax of the encoding is Turtle, and all the prefix used can be found on http://prefix.cc/.

Events

Events are actions or occurrences taking place at a certain time at a specific location. Event comprises actions carried out by agents which results in a status change of the entity described. Event can have agency, aspect and causality,

Production

Production is a subclass of Event which described specific activity designed which result in the creation of one or more new physical object. This type of creation is modelled in CRM using the E12 Production Entity, using the pattern:

E22 Man-Made Object → P108 was produced by → E12 Production

Agency

The agency in the activity can be modelled simply as:

E12 Production → P14 carried out by → E21 Person

While the encoding of the modelling in Turtle can be seen below

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<#work/6004987> a crm:E22_Man-Made_Object ;
crm:P16i_was_used_for <https://example.sikart.ch/publication_activity/1> ;

<https://example.sikart.ch/publication_activity/1> a crm:E7_Activity ;
crm:P14_carried_out_by <https://example.sikart.ch/person/135> .

<https://example.sikart.ch/person/135> a crm:E21_Person;
crm:P1_is_identified_by <https://example.sikart.ch/person/134/appellation> .

<https://example.sikart.ch/person/134/appellation>
a  crm:E41_Appellation ;
rdfs:label "Oskar Bätschmann" .

Codebox 1 - Agency

Agent role in the activity

The role of the actor within the activity can be further modelled with a role. The modelling of this pattern is a bit more complicated matter. It would be:

E12 Production → P14 carried out by → E21 Person → P14.1 in the role of → E55 Type

However, such modelling use a relation over a relation, which is a knowledge representation construct that it is not possible to translate in RDF, because of inherent limitations in the language. For such reason, the CIDOC-CRM RDF uses a diverse modelling, which appear to be functionally equivalent. Instructions about it can be found here, and the modelling is:

E12 Production → P01 is domain of → PC14 carried out by
PC14 carried out by → P012 has range → E21 Person
PC14 carried out by → P14.1 in the role of → E55Type

The encoding of the modelling in Turtle follow:

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<#work/6004987> a crm:E22_Man-Made_Object ;
crm:P16i_was_used_for <https://example.sikart.ch/publication_activity/1> ;

<https://example.sikart.ch/publication_activity/1> a crm:E7_Activity ;
crm:P1_is_identified_by <https://example.sikart.ch/publication_activity/1/appellation> ;
crm:P4_has_time-span <https://example.sikart.ch/time/2> ;
crm:P01_is_domain_of <https://example.sikart.ch/publication_activity/1/perform> .

<https://example.sikart.ch/publication_activity/1/perform> a crm:PC14_carried_out_by ;
    crm:P02_has_range <https://example.sikart.ch/person/134>, <https://example.sikart.ch/person/135> ;
    crm:P14.1_in_the_role_of <#type/Director> .

<https://example.sikart.ch/publication_activity/1/appellation>
a  crm:E41_Appellation ;
rdfs:label "Publication of Ferdinand Hodler Catalogue raisonné"@fr .

<https://example.sikart.ch/person/134> a crm:E21_Person;
crm:P1_is_identified_by <https://example.sikart.ch/person/134/appellation> 

<https://example.sikart.ch/person/135> a crm:E21_Person;
crm:P1_is_identified_by <https://example.sikart.ch/person/135/appellation> 

<https://example.sikart.ch/person/134/appellation>
a  crm:E41_Appellation ;
rdfs:label "Oskar Bätschmann" .

<https://example.sikart.ch/person/135/appellation>
a  crm:E41_Appellation ;
rdfs:label "Paul Müller" .

<https://example.sikart.ch/time/2> a  crm:E52_Time-Span ;
crm:P81a_end_of_the_begin "2018-5-19"^^xsd:dateTime ;
crm:p81b_begin_of_the_end "2018-5-19"^^xsd:dateTime .

Codebox 2 - Agent role

Technique

The event allow us to define more relationships about the production of the object. Surely an important one is the technique used. The CRM modelling follow:

E12 Production → P33 used specific technique → E29 Design or Procedure

The encoding of the modelling in Turtle is pretty straightforward:

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  <https://example.sikart.ch/work/6004987> a crm:E22_Man-Made_Object ;
    crm:P108i_was_produced_by <https://example.sikart.ch/production_activity/1> .

    <https://example.sikart.ch/production_activity/1> a crm:E12_Production ;
    crm:P33_used_specific_technique <https://example.sikart.ch/technique/1> .

    <https://example.sikart.ch/technique/1>  a crm:E29_Design_or_Procedure ;
    crm:P1_is_identified_by <https://example.sikart.ch/technique/1/appellation> .

    <https://example.sikart.ch/technique/1/appellation> a  crm:E41_Appellation ;
    rdfs:label "Öl auf Leinwand" .

Codebox 3 - Technique